In times there has been a growing interest, in metabolic surgery as a solution for individuals grappling with Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and other related problems . Individuals with Type 2 diabetes , will have insulin resistance (IR). IR will lead to high blood glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) levels , elevated insulin , high C- reactive protein (CRP) levels. Not all , but many of these patients with Type 2 diabetes will be seen to have central obesity , a high waist circumference. They will eventually also develop high TG ( Triglyceride ) and HDL in blood and high blood pressure. Hence the risk of CVD ( Cardio Vascular Disease) is high in these patients. This article will delve into the aspects of metabolic surgery highlighting its advantages, considerations and the impact it can have on individuals lives.
Understanding Metabolic Surgery
Metabolic surgery encompasses a range of procedures to bring about positive changes in various metabolic functions leading to improvements in blood sugar levels, insulin resistance and other markers of metabolism.
Benefits of Metabolic Surgery
- Remission of Type 2 Diabetes; One remarkable advantage of metabolic surgery is its potential to induce remission in type 2 diabetes by reversing insulin resistance and improving glucose metabolism , and fatty acid metabolism. This is the result of changes that occur in the gut hormones after metabolic surgery and the cross talk of these gut hormones with brain. This metabolic surgery eventually eliminates the need to take insulin and OHA ( Oral Hypoglycemic Agent ) in most of cases , who fulfil the inclusions criteria for metabolic surgery.
- Remission of dyslipidemia ; Metabolic surgery also induces decrease in plasma FFA( Free Fatty Acid ), TG( Triglycerides ) concentrations.
- Enhanced Cardiovascular Health; Metabolic surgery has the potential to lower hypertension and improve heart health thus reducing the risk of heart disease. It goes beyond benefits.
- Putting side effects of Type 2 diabetes at bay : Metabolic surgery get the deranged metabolism back on track and thus can help patients having uncontrolled diabetes avoid and postpone side effects of Type 2 diabetes like CVD( Cardio Vascular Disease) , CAD (Coronary Artery Disease ) , diabetic neuropathy, diabetic nephropathy, stroke.
There are types of metabolic surgery procedures each, with its mechanisms and advantages. Some performed procedures include
- Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
- Mini Gastric Bybass
- SADI(Single Anastomosis Duodenal –Ileal bypass )
- Sleeve Gastrectomy
- Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS)
Before considering metabolic surgery there are factors to take into account. Eligibility criteria includes a good serum C- Peptide levels, age of onset of Type 2 diabetes, duration of diabetes, time since insulin has started to treat diabetes, BMI and family history of diabetes , HbA1c levels play a vital role in selecting a patient for metabolic surgery and giving good results.
Metabolic surgery has progressed into a choice, for people dealing with Type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome on the whole. Nevertheless it is crucial to conduct research seek advice, from experts and carefully weigh the advantages and potential risks before reaching a decision. Embarking on surgery can be a life changing experience; however achieving success requires making decisions and committing to long term lifestyle modifications.
It is a myth that metabolic surgery is only for obese patients having Type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome . Even overweight and class I obese patients can avail of the benefits of metabolic surgery.